A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Abstinence

No sexual activity such as intercourse or masturbation

Acini

Any small saclike component of the gland

Active surveillance

An option for men who have a low-risk prostate cancer that does not cause serious symptoms or is unlikely to spread to other parts of the body. The prostate cancer is monitored through regular medical check-ups and treatments are only given if the prostate cancer progresses. 

Acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP)

An infection in the prostate gland which causes fever, severe pain in the lower back and genital area and burning, urgent and frequent urination. It is quite rare and can usually be successfully treated with antibiotics

Adenoma

A benign tumor having the origin or structure of a gland

Adjuvant

A substance added to a drug to increase or help its effect

Adrenal glands

Glands that sit on top of the kidneys

Albumin

A major protein found in blood

Alopecia

Hair loss

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

A protein found in the bloodstream of some men with testicular cancer

Alprostadil

An injectible prostaglandin drug (See Caverject®)

Anabolic steroids

Drugs that have the same action as male sex hormones (androgens) for enhancing muscle growth and repair. Anabolic steroids include natural hormones such as testosterone, or synthetic ‘man-made’ versions. Anabolic steroid use is illegal in Australia.

Anaesthetic

Drugs that cause loss of feeling (numbness) to a specific part of the body during a minor medical procedure (local anaesthetic), or that cause loss of feeling and unconsciousness during a major procedure such as an operation (general anaesthetic).

Androgen

A male sex hormone such as testosterone responsible for the development of male characteristics

Andrology

The study of the functions and diseases specific to males, especially of the reproductive organs. The equivalent to gynaecology for women

Antegrade ejaculation

Normal forward ejaculation

Anterior

Describing or relating to the front part of the body, organs or limbs

Antibodies

Proteins made by the body’s immune system in response to foreign substance; attacks foreign substance and protects against infection

Antigen

Antigens are generally foreign substances such as toxins or bacteria that cause the body to react with an immune system response

Antimetabolites

Anticancer drugs that are like substances needed by cells for normal growth

Anuria

A condition in which the body stops making urine

Anus

Opening at the lower end of the rectum through which stools are passed

Ascites

A buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity, which can cause swelling and the feeling of being bloated

Aspiration

Use of a thin needle to take small samples of tissue from the body

Assisted Reproductive Treatments (ART)

Assisted reproductive treatment, also known as assisted reproductive technology, refers to treatments used to assist people in achieving a pregnancy. ART covers a wide spectrum of treatments, such as IVF and ICSI.

Asthenozoospermia

Less than the normal number of moving sperm in the semen

Asymptomatic

A disease process that does not have symptoms

Atherosclerosis

A process that results in the build up of plaques or deposits in arteries that may lead to obstruction of blood flow

Azoospermia

The absence of sperm in the seminal fluid due to a blockage in the sperm ducts or poor sperm production

B

Benign

Non-cancerous

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

A non-cancerous enlargement the prostate gland due to an increase in the number of cells. The prostate can then push against the urethra and bladder, blocking the flow of urine “>A non-cancerous enlargement the prostate gland due to an increase in the number of cells.  The prostate can then push against the urethra and bladder, blocking the flow of urine

Beta-human chorionic gonadtrophin (beta-hCG)

Protein found in the bloodstream that can be a marker of testicular cancer

Bilateral

On both sides

Biopsy

An operation to remove a small sample of tissue or cells from part of the body for testing and examination under a microscope

Bladder

Sac in the lower abdomen which stores urine that has passed from the kidneys down the ureter

Bowel

Part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the anus

BPH

See Benign prostatic hyperplasia or Benign prostatic hypertrophy

Brachytherapy

Radiotherapy using radioactive seeds or rods which are inserted directly into the prostate

C

Cancer

Diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system and to other parts of the body

Carcinoid

A small tumor that secretes serotonin and is usually found in the gastrointestinal tract

Carcinoma

Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs

Carcinoma-in-situ

Type of ‘pre-cancer’ that develops into testicular cancer in 50% of cases.  Often found in the second testis of men diagnosed with testicular cancer and needs regular checks.

Cardiologist

A doctor who specialises in heart disease

Castration

Removal of the testes

Catheter

A thin flexible tube used to take fluids in or out of the body

Caverject®

Drug therapy which is injected into the penis

Chemotherapy

Treatment with drugs that circulate in the blood stream to kill cancer cells through different parts of the body

Choriocarcinoma

A rare, highly malignant germ cell cancer

Chorionic Gonadotrophin

A human hormone made by chorionic cells (in the fetal part of the placenta)

Chromosomes

Structures in each cell in the body, which contain genetic material

Cialis®

Brand of oral PDE5 inhibitor which treats erectile dysfunction by promoting the body’s natural response to sexual stimulation

Circadian rhythm

A pattern based on a 24 hour cycle

Circumcision

Surgical removal of all or part of the foreskin of the penis

Colitis

Inflammation of the large intestine (the colon)

Colon

Part of the bowel between the small intestine and the rectum

Colonoscopy

Examination of the bowel using a fibreoptic endoscope

Congenital

Any condition that is present at birth

Congenital absence of the vas deferens

Absence at birth of ducts (tubes) that transport sperm from the testes to the ejaculatory duct

Contraceptive

A method to prevent pregnancy. Contraceptives include hormonal methods (such as the pill, injections, implant and intrauterine devices), and barrier methods (such as the male or female condom, or diaphragm).

Contralateral

The other side of the body, for example, the other testicle

Corpus cavernosum (singular: cavernosa)

Smooth muscle in the penis in the shape of two parallel cylindrical chambers.  These fill with blood druing an erection.

Cortisone

A naturally occurring hormone produced in small amounts by the adrenal gland

Crohn’s disease

A chronic inflammatory disease, mainly involving the small and large intestine

Cryptorchidism

Condition in which one or both testicles do not move from the abdomen, where they develop before birth, into the scrotum. Also called undescended testicles or maldescent of the testis

CT scan (computerised tomography)

A  specialised x-ray examination that is used to give 3D images of organs in the body to help define abnormalities within them

Culture

To grow cells, tissues or organisms, often in a sterile dish, for scientific purposes

Cyst

A closed sac or capsule, usually filled with fluid or semisolid material

Cystic Fibrosis

A hereditary disease of the exocrine glands and is characterised by the production of abnormal secretions

Cytology

The study of cells

Cytopathology

Checking the normal and abnormal features of cells using a microscope

D

Detrusor muscle

The large muscle in the bladder that expands to store urine and squeezes or contracts when the bladder is emptied and urine is passed

Dexyribonucleic Acid

A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell. The sequence of nucleotides determines individual hereditary characteristics

DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone)

A weak male sex hormone

Diabetes

Potentially life threatening metabolic disorder where blood sugar levels are imbalanced

Diathermy

The use of heat to destroy tissue or cells. Sometimes used in a vasectomy operation to cut or block the vas deferens

Dihydrotestosterone

An androgen derived from testosterone

Doppler Assessment

A test to check blood flow in parts of the body

Down Syndrome

A chromosome disorder that causes mental retardation and a range of other physical problems, including infertility

DRE (digital rectal examination)

A physical examination where the doctor places a gloved finger into the patient’s rectum to check the size and shape of the prostate

Dysfunction

Not working properly

Dysuria

Pain or problems with passing urine

E

Ejaculate

Semen ejected from the penis

Ejaculation

Discharge of semen from the penis during sexual climax (orgasm)

Ejaculatory duct

The part of the male reproductive tract where the vas deferens joins with the seminal vesicle and passes through the prostate

Embolization

A treatment that clogs small blood vessels and blocks the flow of blood

Embryo

An early stage of development as a result of successful fertilisation, up to the eighth week of pregnancy

Endocrine

Refers to a process in which a group of cells secrete into the blood

Endocrine System

The system of glands (including the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, testes) which secrete their products (hormones) into the blood stream

Endocrinologist

A doctor who specialises in problems in the endocrine system (hormones and hormonal function)

Endoscope

A piece of equipment used to see inside the body.  It usually is made up of a thin tube with a light and camera at one end.  This tube is inserted into the patient and sends pictures from inside the body to a monitor or television screen for the doctor to examine more closely

Enuresis

Urinary incontinence not caused by a physical problem

Epididymis

A highly coiled tube at the back of the testes in which sperm are stored and mature. All sperm must pass along this tube to reach the vas deferens

Epididymo-orchitis

Inflamation of the epididymis and testis

Epithelium

The covering of the internal and external organs of the body and the lining of vessels, body cavities, glands and organs.

Erectile dysfunction

An ongoing problem getting and maintaining an erection that is firm enough for sexual intercourse

Erection

Hardening of the penis for sexual intercourse

Extra-gonadal germ cell tumour (EGC tumour)

Rare tumours, found mainly in children, which develop from sperm-forming cells that are found outside the reproductive organs when there is no evidence of cancer in the testes

F

Fertilisation

The penetration of the egg by the sperm to create a zygote

Fertility

Ability to conceive or reproduce

Fetus

In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after conception to the moment of birth, as different from the earlier embryo

Fibrosis

Formation of fibrous tissue that replaces the normal tissue eg scars

Fine needle aspiration

Using a thin needle to take a small sample of tissue from the body for microscopic examination

Flaccid

Non-erect (soft) state of the penis

Follicle

The fluid-filled sac on the ovary in which the egg develops

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

A pituitary hormone which maintains sperm production

G

Galactorrhoea

Lactation not linked with childbirth or nursing

Gastrointestinal tract

An organ that starts from the mouth and finishes at the anus

Gene

The biologic unit of genetic material and inheritance

Gene mutations

An unusual change in the genetic material of a cell

Genetic

Study of genes and inherited characteristics

Geneticist

A doctor who specialises in the study of genetics

Genital System

The biological system which, in males, includes the testicles, the vas deferens, the prostate, and the penis

Genitourinary system

The parts of the body that play a role in reproduction, getting rid of waste products in the form of urine, or both

Germ cell

Testicular cell that divides to produce the immature sperm cells

Germ Cell Tumor

A tumor arising from germ cells. 95% of all testicular tumors are germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors in men are classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas

Gland

An organ of the body that produces a hormone or other body secretion that is used elsewhere in the body

Gleason Score

A grading which indicates the rate of growth of the prostate cancer

Globulin

A family of proteins found in blood, milk and muscle

Gonadotrophic hormones

Hormones that are secreted by the pituitary gland

Gonads

Organs that produce the sex cells (e.g. sperm) and sex hormones (e.g. testosterone)

Gonorrhoea

A sexually transmitted bacterial infection

Gynaecologist

A doctor who specialises in the treatment of women’s diseases of the reproductive organs

Gynaecology

The study of functions and diseases of women

Gynecomastia

Breast development in the male

H

Haematuria

Blood in the urine

Haemoglobin

Oxygen carrying substance in red blood cells

Histology

The study of cells and tissues at the microscopic level

Histopathology

Study of diseases involving tissue cells

Hodgkin’s disease

A malignant disease of the lymph nodes (lymphoma)

Hormone

A substance that circulates through the body in the blood stream and promotes growth, reproduction and general well-being

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

A hormone made by chorionic cells (in the fetal part of the placenta).  It is a very similar hormone to LH but it has a longer time of action

Human genome

The entire sequencing of DNA of the human species

Hydrocele

A swelling of (part of) the scrotal pouch because of an increased amount of fluid around the testicle

Hyperlipidaemia

Generic term for conditions where there are high concentrations of lipids in the blood such as cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins

Hyperplasia

The increased production or growth of normal cells in an organ or tissue

Hyperstimulation

Stimulation that is more than normal

Hypertrophy

An increase in the size of the prostate gland, usually caused by the growth of too many cells

Hypogonadism

An inability of the testes to produce high enough levels of testosterone (androgen deficiency) and/or sperm (spermatogenesis)

Hypospermatogenesis

Low sperm production within the testis

Hypothalamus

The area of the brain that controls endocrine functions, body temperature, hunger and thirst

I

Immunobead test

A simple test to detect if sperm antibodies are present in semen and is performed as part of the semen analysis test at specialised Andrology laboratories

Impotence

The failure to get or keep an erection

Impotent

Unable to have an erection adequate for sexual intercourse

Incontinence

Uncontrolled leakage of urine

Indolent

Little or no pain/side-effect

Infertility

Failure to achieve a pregnancy within one year of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse

Inguinal hernia

Protrusion of the intestines into the scrotum through the inguinal canal

Inguinal orchiectomy

Removal of the testicle through an incision in the groin

Intercourse

The act of having sex with penetration

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

A form of IVF used to treat male infertility in which a single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Placement of sperm directly into the womb using a fine catheter

Intravenous

Placing a substance (e.g. drug) directly into the vein

In vitro fertilization (IVF)

A form of assisted reproduction in which sperm collected from the male is mixed with the female partners eggs outside the body

Involuntary muscle

Muscle that cannot be consciously controlled and responds to reflex action

J

K

Karyotype

A blood test to check for the number of chromosomes in cells

Klinefelter syndrome

A chromosome problem that causes low testosterone levels, breast development, small testes and infertility in men

L

Lesion

A change in body tissue caused by disease or injury

Levitra®

Brand of oral PDE5 inhibitor which treats erectile dysfunction by promoting the body’s natural response to sexual stimulation

Leydig cells

The testicular cell that produces the male hormone testosterone

Libido

Sex drive

Localised

Cancer that remains in the location where the first lump or growth developed and has not yet spread throughout the body

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

A hormone produced by the pituitary gland which stimulates the production of testosterone in the testes

Lymph node

Small oval structures that filter the lymph and fight infection. Found in the groin, abdomen, neck, armpit and other sites.

Lymphadenopathy

Disorder characterised by a localised/generalised enlargement of the lymph nodes

Lymphoma

Cancer that happens in lymph nodes or other lymph tissues

M

Macroscopic

Big enough to see with the eye.

Magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI)

A specialised non-invasive medical imaging process, which does not use x-rays, to diagnose a wide range of diseases

Male menopause

A term often used to describe androgen deficiency which falsely implies a similarity between female and male hormonal decline later in life

Malignant

Potentially fatal cancerous cells that may spread through the body if not treated

Maturation

Becoming mature

Mediastinum

The centermost part of the chest, between the ribs and spine (front to back) and between the lungs

Menopause

Ceasing of menses (periods) in women only

Metabolic

Relating to the physical and chemical processes of the body

Metabolite(s)

Substances produced by body functions

Metastasis

Cancer cells spread from one part of the body to another

Metastatic

Cancer that has spread to another location in the body; a secondary deposit of cancerous cells

Micropenis

Abnormal smallness of the penis. Micropenis occurs when the penis fails to grow for the last two-thirds of the embryo’s development

Microscopic

Extremely small and not visible by the naked eye.

Morbidity

An illness or abnormal condition

Mutation

An unusual change in the genetic material of a cell

N

Nanomolar

Unit of measurement

Necrosis

Death of cells or tissue

Needle biopsy

The removal of a piece of living tissue for microsopic examination by inserting a hollow needle through the skin and into the tissue

Neoplasm

Abnormal growth of tissue

Nephrectomy

Surgical removal of a kidney

Nitrate

Type of drug which contains nitric acid

Nocturia

A need to pass urine more than twice at night

Non-seminoma

A type of testicular cancer that forms in specialised sex cells called germ cells (precursors of the sperm-forming cells)

O

Oestradiol

The major female sex hormone produced by the ovary.

Oestrogen

One of a group of female sex hormones (including oestradiol) that controls the development of female secondary sex characteristics and promotes the growth and maintenance of the female reproductive system.  Oestrogens are made mainly by the ovary, but also in the placenta and small amounts in the testis

Oligozoospermia (or oligospermia)

A very low number of sperm present in the seminal fluid

Oncologist

A doctor who specialises in the treatment of various types of cancer

Oncology

Study and treatment of cancer

Oocytes

A female germ cell in the ovary; a developing egg cell.

Oral medication

Tablet or capsule

Orchidectomy

Surgery to remove one or both testes

Orchidopexy

An operation to lower an undescended testicle and stitch it into the scrotum

Orchitis

Infection of the testes

Orgasm

Culmination of sexual excitement, usually accompanied by ejaculation in the male

Osteoporosis

Thinning of bones which leads to a greater chance of fracturing bones

Ovulation

The process by which an egg is released from the ovary

P

Paediatrician

A doctor who specialises in the treatment of children from birth to adolescence

PBS (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme)

Australian Government program for the subsidy of prescribed essential drugs, to provide them cheaper to the consumer

PDE5 (phosphodiesterase) inhibitors

Family of drugs used for treating erectile dysfunction by promoting the body’s natural response to sexual stimulation

Penetration

Act of entering deeply into a partner (with the penis)

Penile

Relating to the penis

Penile implant

A device surgically inserted into the penis to make the penis hard for intercourse

Penis

Male organ for urination and sexual intercourse.

Perineal

A part of the body between the scrotum and the anus

Perineal pain

Pain at the base of the scrotum and penis

Perineal prostatectomy

Removal of the prostate gland through a cut made between the scrotum and the anus

Perineum

The tissue between the anus and scrotum

Peritoneum

Smooth membrane that lines the abdomen wall and covers the organs within in it

Peyronie’s Disease

Build up of plaques around the core of the penis, which can lead to change in shape and painful erections

pH

Measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a fluid.

Phytoestrogens

Parts of plants that are chemically similar to the hormone oestrogen

Pituitary gland

A small gland that sits at the base of the hypothalamus which is part of the brain

Placebo

A dummy medication or treatment

Plasma

The liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid

Polycystic

Presence of many cysts

Polycythaemia

The presence of too many red blood cells in the blood

Potency

The ability of the male to perform sexual intercourse

Prednisolone

A synthetic steroid similar to hydrocortisone and used in various compounds as an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antiallergic drug

Premature ejaculation

Expulsion of semen from the penis before penetration has been achieved

Priapism

Unusually persistent and often painful erection

Primary seminiferous tubule failure

The sperm producing cells in the testes either did not develop or have been permanently destroyed.  It is an untreatable condition

Prognosis

An indication as to the future outcome of a disease

Prolactin

A hormone produced and secreted into the bloodstream by the anterior pituitary gland

Prostate

A gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the bladder

Prostatectomy (radical/retropubic)

An operation to remove the prostate gland (involving an incision or cut in the abdomen to go behind the pubic bone) to take out the enlarged part of the prostate (in the case of BPH) or all of the prostate (in the case of prostate cancer)

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

A substance produced by the prostate that may be found in increased amounts in the blood of men who have prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia or infection or inflammation of the prostate.

Prostatitis

Inflammation of the prostate gland

Prosthesis

An artificial replacement for a missing body part, often used for cosmetic purposes

PSA (prostate specific antigen)

A substance produced by the prostate that may be found in increased amounts in the blood of men who have prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or infection or inflammation of the prostate

Psychiatrist

A doctor who specialises in diagnosis and treatment of psychological or mental problems

Psychologist

A therapist, not necessarily a doctor, who treats psychological or mental problems

Psychosis

Mental disorder or problem

Puberty

The period in both males and females in which changes occur in reproductive organs/ovaries/testes so that reproduction is possible

Q

R

Radiation Oncologist

The specialist that deals with radiotherapy

Radical prostatectomy

An operation to remove the whole prostate gland, usually when cancer has been diagnosed

Radiology

The use of radiation (for example X-rays) to diagnose or treat disease

Radiotherapy

Treatment of disease with ionizing radiation

Rebore

Also known as a ‘TURP’ (transurethral resection of the prostate). This operation involves the removal of small pieces of prostate using a small camera and resector that are inserted into the penis via the urethra.  No external cuts and wounds are needed with this operation

Rectal examination

An examination in which a doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the patients rectum to feel for abnormalities (for example, changes in the prostate)

Rectum

Commonly known as the “back passage”, this part of the body includes the last 10-15 cm of the large intestine leading to the anus

Remission

A significant decrease in the symptoms of the cancer

Resection

Removal of part of an organ or structure

Retrograde ejaculation

A condition where the semen flows backwards into the bladder rather than out of the penis during orgasm

Retroperitoneum

The back of the abdomen where the kidneys lie and the great blood vessels run

Retropubic Prostatectomy

Removal of the prostate gland through a cut made in the lower abdomen

Risk factor

An aspect of lifestyle or behaviour, a health condition, an environmental exposure or an inborn or inherited characteristic, known to be linked with health-related conditions considered important to prevent

S

Scrotum

The skin pouch that holds the testes

Semen

Fluid that is ejaculated from the penis during sexual activity; contains sperm and other fluids from the testis, prostate and seminal vesicles

Seminal fluid

The thick white fluid mainly produced by the prostate and seminal vesicles containing sperm that is ejaculated by the penis

Seminal vesicles

Sac-like structures in the male, found near the prostate gland, which produce fluid that is part of the semen ejaculate

Seminiferous tubules

The sperm-producing tubules in the testes in which sperm are produced

Seminoma

Type of testicular cancer that arises from sperm-forming or germ cells

Sertoli cells

Cells in the testes that are responsible for nurturing the spermatids (immature sperm)

Serum

The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood

Sex-hormone binding globulin

A protein produced by the liver that binds sex hormones (testosterone and oestradiol) in the blood

Sexual intercourse

Sexual relations between two people

Sildenafil

See Viagra®. Brand of oral PDE5 inhibitor which treats erectile dysfunction by promoting the body’s natural response to sexual stimulation

Sleep apnoea (apnea)

Temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep

Sperm

Mature male sex cell

Sperm bank

Facility where sperm are kept frozen in liquid nitrogen for later use in artificial insemination

Sperm morphology

A semen analysis factor that indicates the number or percentage of sperm in the sample that appear to have been formed normally.

Sperm motility

The ability of sperm to swim. Poor motility means the sperm have a difficult time swimming toward their goal, the egg.

Sperm retrieval

The doctor removes sperm from a man’s reproductive tract (testis or epididymis) using a fine needle, biopsy gun, or other instrument

Spermatic cord

The spermatic cord is made up of the vas deferens, nerves and blood vessels and attaches the testes to the body

Spermatids

Immature sperm

Spermatocele

A spermatocele is (usually) a small cavity, filled with watery liquid, in the epididymis.

Spermatogenesis

Production of sperm in the testes

Spermaturia

Spermaturia is the release of sperm into the urine. This can happen in men with long periods of sexual abstinence. This is quite normal and is a way of discharging sperm from the body

Stem cell

Undifferentiated, primitive cells in any tissues with the ability both to multiply and to change into more specialised cells

Steroid

A large group of chemical substances related in structure to one another and each containing the same chemical skeleton

Stroma

The tissue or supporting framework of an organ

Symptom

A sign that a person has a disease or condition. Some signs may be fever, nausea, vomiting

Systemic therapy

Treatment that uses substances that travel through the bloodstream, reaching and affecting cells all over the body

T

Tadalafil

See Cialis®. Brand of oral PDE5 inhibitor which treats erectile dysfunction by promoting the body’s natural response to sexual stimulation

Teratoma

Non-cancerous growth, sometimes identified following chemotherapy for testicular cancer, which has the potential to grow and become malignant

Testicle/testis (plural: testes)

The male reproductive organ that produces sperm and the male sex hormones

Testicular biopsy

Taking a small piece of flesh or ’tissue’ from the testis and examined under a microscope

Testicular function

The ability of the testicles to produce sperm and testosterone

Testicular torsion

Twisting of the spermatic cord, cutting off the blood supply to the testicle and causing severe pain. A medical EMERGENCY because the testicle will die after a few hours

Testosterone

Male sex hormone

Total androgen blockade

Therapy used to block male sex hormones (androgens) in the body. This may be done with surgery, hormonal therapy, or a combination

Toxicity

The degree to which something is poisonous

Transmembrane

Passing across a thin layer of tissue

Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (TRUS)

A biopsy of the prostate using an ultrasound probe in the rectum to help the doctor choose different parts of the gland from which to take sample tissue for pathology testing

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

Also known as a “rebore”, this operation involves the removal of small pieces of prostate using a small camera and resector that are inserted into the penis via the urethra.  No external cuts and wounds are needed with this operation

Tumour

Abnormal lump of cells that grows in the body; can be benign or can spread to other parts of the body

Tumour marker

A substance found in the blood or urine that suggests the presence of cancer

Tunica Vaginalis

A double layered pouch derived from the peritoneum that covers each testis

U

Ultrasonography

Imaging deep structures of the body

Ultrasound

Medical process, which takes images or pictures using special sound waves, that are used to examine organs inside the body without the need to make cuts or incisions

Undescended testicle

Failure of the testis to descend from the groin or abdomen, where they develop during gestation, into the scrotum

Urethra

The tube that leads urine from the bladder out of the body via the penis. In men, secretions from accessory glands also empty into the urethra

Urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra

Urinary tract

All organs and ducts involved in the secretion and discharge of urine from the body

Urologist

A doctor who specialises in diseases of the urinary tract in men and women, and the genital organs in men

Uterus

The part of a woman in which a baby develops before birth

V

Vagina

The lower part of the female reproductive tract that connects the cervix to the outside

Vardenafil

See Levitra®. Brand of oral PDE5 inhibitor which treats erectile dysfunction by promoting the body’s natural response to sexual stimulation

Varicocele

A collection of enlarged (dilated) veins in the spermatic cord

Vascular

Conditions involving blood vessels

Vas deferens

Duct that transports sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct

Vasectomy

Male sterilisation procedure in which the vas deferens is cut

Venous

Relating to a vein (blood vessel in the body)

Viagra®

Brand of oral PDE5 inhibitor which treats erectile dysfunction by promoting the body’s natural response to sexual stimulation

W

X

Y

Yolk sac

Part of the embryo during development which may rarely lead to cancerous growth in the gonads, sacrum and in the chest cavity

Z

Zygote

A cell produced by the union of a sperm and egg